We know, we know. Every year we ask you bring in your cat’s stool sample for the annual visit. The task is not exactly up there with your favorite things to do. Why do we make this high maintenance request of you each year, considering we dewormed your little one when he or she was a kitten?
Parasites are persistent, tiny organisms that stealthily enter (or re-enter) your cat’s system. Despite deworming during kittenhood, parasites have a unique ability to lie dormant in the muscle of a cat’s body. When they “hide,” they’re less likely to be treated by deworming treatments, which don’t kill them when they’re not active. Stress, age and other factors can awaken dormant parasites, and then when the cat is older, he or she can present with an active infection.
Untreated parasite infections can lead to serious complications, including vomiting, intestinal malabsorption and irritable bowel disease. And parasites are transmittable to people: giardia, for example, can shed cysts outside the feline body that emerge from your cat’s hair/coat.Think about that while your kitty snoozes on your favorite pillow...
Some cats are more at risk for internal parasites than others, namely those that venture outdoors (they’re also more at risk for fleas and ticks, but that’s another story). And outdoor cats are also more susceptible to roundworm, hookworm and giardia, to name a few.
The great outdoors is rife with parasitic organisms that thrive in the dirt and grass your cat strolls through, as well as the puddle of rainwater she drinks from -- not to mention the rodents she kills. Every outdoor step your cat takes is a risk for parasite contact.
Does that mean the indoor feline crew is safe? Not at all. Indoor cats are also vulnerable to parasites: leaves and tiny particles that blow into your house can contain parasites your cat can ingest. Also containing parasites is the dirt we track in on our shoes and the potting soil we use for our indoor houseplants (there’s a 20 percent chance it contains parasites).
Now you know why we “torture” you, our beloved clients, each year by asking you to excavate the litter box and place poop in a bag: so we can make sure your cat is not at risk for a parasitic infection. Because a healthy cat is the center of a happy family.
As always, NECC believes prevention is the best medicine, and we recommend year round use of monthly flea and heartworm prevention to ensure your cat is parasite-free. Check out our pharmacy store for parasite products we recommend and get your cat started today!
Life with a feline is rarely simple. For example: providing food for your dog is a breeze: he’s hungry and you feed him. But with cats, it isn’t always a straightforward process.
Ceramic, metal or porcelain materials are optimal for feeding and watering your cat. Avoid using plastic dishes: regardless of how often you clean them, plastic can trap bacteria, which can be harmful if ingested. It can also cause chin acne (cats often rub their chin on the bowl’s surface when they eat). Wash your cat's food bowls daily to avoid bacterial growth. Here are some tips for feeding your cat healthfully:
Water is essential to life but cats -- of course -- are different. Evolved from desert-dwelling ancestors with limited access to water, cats’ kidneys compensate for a lack of water by retaining as much of it as possible, which is why cat urine is typically concentrated and yellow.
While their kidneys have adapted, lack of water intake is a major contributor to early onset kidney disease in domesticated cats. The problem often lies in the fact they rarely drink water at home. The main reason? Persnickety felines often refuse to drink water if they are unhappy with the location and/or taste. Here are some facts about cats and water:
There are ways to encourage healthy water consumption.
Cat are hunters by nature, so the prospect of bowls of food and water waiting in plain sight for consumption can sometimes be challenging for an animal that’s genetically programmed to hunt for small prey. Understanding your cat’s nature will help you help them to live a happy, healthy, well-fed (and hydrated) life.
Cats are reliable when it comes to litter box preferences; humans just need to understand how and why.
Fastidious creatures, cats prefer to relieve themselves in a clean and safe environment. (They are instinctively cautious and in the wild -- in their “natural state” -- become more vulnerable to predators while eliminating.)
In order to encourage healthy “bathroom” habits in your home, your cat needs to feel safe and clean. There are specific rules to keep in mind when managing your cat’s (or cats’) litter boxes, which, when followed, allow for peace, harmony and no poop or pee outside the box.
The Litter Box
Boxes should be kept in a quiet and easy-to-reach location. While a basement location seems perfect from the point of view of humans who have one, it’s not always ideal for cats, particularly older cats (with arthritis or bad eyes) who may find it challenging go down -- then up -- stairs. Large closets, breezeways, or other designated areas in a home office are among the preferred locations to consider.
The quantity of litter boxes is critical: cats need one litter box per cat -- plus one box. Yes, you read that correctly. If you have one cat, you should provide two boxes. Two cats? Three boxes, etc. It’s logical if you think about it. If you had to use the bathroom and found a mess in the toilet, wouldn’t you flush first? Cats feel the same way, and by providing additional boxes your cat will choose the cleaner location.
Listen Up About Litter
One of our most frequently asked questions is: “What type of litter should I buy?” The answer is simple: cats prefer the most basic litter, meaning unscented and clumpable. Cats are averse to fragrances in general and they particularly don’t like it where they relieve themselves.
Texture is also critical, as most cats prefer litter that resembles sand. (In the wild, cats tend to eliminate in dirt under bushes.) It is also important to change the litter completely and not just add litter when the boxes are low. Adding to soiled litter encourages bacterial growth, which can cause urinary tract infections. Scoop boxes no fewer than two times a day. (Again, would you use a dirty toilet?) And it’s optimal to do a full litter change every four-to-six weeks. Brands we recommend are Arm & Hammer, Dr. Elsey’s and Fresh Step.
Stick To The Basics
Litter box style is also a major consideration for cats. Remember: cats feel vulnerable when they eliminate, and a covered litter box can be challenging for some cats that might feel trapped. Standard, low sided plastic boxes are not only inexpensive (around $7), they are also the most cat-friendly. Litter boxes should be thrown away and replaced with new ones once a year.
Avoid using expensive, self-cleaning boxes. The pellets required for this style of box are uncomfortable for cats to step on, and the noise and movement can scare them.
So Much Cleaning; So Little Time
Why do we recommend all this “litter work?” Proper litter box care means healthy cats. When they feel their box is too dirty or if they’re unhappy with its location, cats tend to “hold it in,” which can cause urinary tract infections and/or constipation. The more common outcome is cats having accidents -- or urinating or defecating around the house because they are unhappy with their litter boxes.
Over time, litter box behavior avoidance issues can lead to permanent behavioral problems. If a cat discovers something that makes them feel safe, clean and comfortable when they relieve themselves -- even if it’s your favorite rug -- they will return to it. You might think it’s out of spite, but it’s just a simple instinctual drive. If you don’t take care to make sure you have an appropriate litter box setup, you can bet your cat will find one.
Health issues such as kidney disease and diabetes can cause cats to drink more water, which inevitably makes them urinate more. If your cat suffers from these diseases, our rule of thumb is to treat these cats as if you have an an extra cat, and you should add another box to your collection. If one of your cats develops diabetes and you already have five boxes because you have four cats, you better add the sixth box.
If your cat has an accident, you should address it right away and consider making an appointment for them to be checked by your vet. Cats often have accidents due to urinary tract infection, which are easy to resolve in most cases. If it’s not an infection, then behavior modifications and litter box adjustments may be needed.
Know Your Cat; Love Your Cat
Litter box avoidance can destroy the relationship between cat and owner due to frustrations and damage it creates. In fact, urine elimination around the house is the number one reason cats are left at shelters, and many are euthanized as a result.
Understanding what caring for a cat entails, as well as accommodating their instinctual needs, will help your cat have a good relationship with you (and with the litter box). Our expertise, years of training and love of our own cats have helped us develop these litter box recommendations. These tasks may seem daunting at first, but your efforts are essential to understanding your cat's needs and being able to address them.
Remember: it’s your cat’s house. You just cohabitate there.